What is Learning?
In an educational sense
learning and behavior are inseparable. Learning is said to have
occurred when there is an observable change of behavior. All learning
results from exposure to stimulation.
The source of stimulation is referred to
as the stimulus. For the newborn all stimuli are unique in that they
have not yet been meaningfully associated with a personal response
With the passage of time the child
begins to associate specific stimuli with specific personal reactions.
By way of example a child may relieve personal discomfort by moving
the head away from an intensely bright light. Conversely the child may
associate auditory sound patterns made by an adult with the
satisfaction of his need for food.
Through continual exposure to
stimulation, the child begins to accumulate a pool of stimulus bound
information. In this way he is ultimately able to predict his personal
reaction to any stimulus which he has previously experienced in some
A stimulus is not sufficient unto
itself. A stimulus must be sensed or received if it is to have
instructional value. Some sensory organ on the body must be able to
detect the stimulus. Having a stimulus and the process of receiving it
cannot complete a learning sequence. The received stimulus must be
processed by the brain to cause some form of expression. The final
part of the learning model which must be considered is what actually
happens as a result of having detected a stimulus, or the terminal
behavior. By combining all of these elements the basic learning model,
in its simplest form, looks like this:
Stimulus óĽ Reception
ó| Processing |óĽ Terminal Behavior (Expression)
The learning model graphically
represents a chain type of reaction commencing with receptive skills,
proceeding to process skills and concluding with some form of
those who are working or are single working parents.....have a limited
amount of time to spend with their children. Spending time with your
child, no matter what the age, is extremely important, but research
suggests it is the quality of the time spent, not the quantity of time
that is important.
The quality of the time you spend
together can be enhanced by talking with and listening to your child.
Communicating with your child encourages him or her to express ideas,
improve vocabulary and develop thinking skills......all of which are
important for success in school.
Quality time can occur at any
time or any place. Driving in the car or riding in the bus, taking a
walk in the park or a stroll through the neighborhood or going for an
ice cream after dinner are all good opportunities for talking together. Cleaning the kitchen, doing the laundry, or washing the
dishes together provide time to communicate with each other and keep
in touch with each otherís activities. Children of all ages
especially enjoy having your full attention at bedtime when you can
read or talk together.