## Elementary School | Mathematics | Computation

Numbers and operations on numbers play fundamental roles in helping us make sense of the world around us. Operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as the ability to find powers and roots, extend the notion of numbers to create tools to model situations and solve problems in our everyday lives. Discussing and solving problems related to budgets, comparing prices on merchandise, understanding the nature of interest charges, measuring fuel consumption and calculating the trajectory for space travel would all be impossible without a sense of numbers and numerical operations. All people must develop this sense of numbers and operations and be able to use it to solve problems using mental computation, paper-and-pencil algorithms, calculators and computers.

### Learning Objectives Grades K-2

Demonstrate knowledge and use of numbers and their representations in a broad range of theoretical and practical settings:

- Identify whole numbers and compare them using the symbols <, >, or = and the words "less than", "greater than", or "equal to", applying counting, grouping and place value concepts.
- Identify and model fractions using concrete materials and pictorial representations.

Investigate, represent and solve problems using number facts, operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) and their properties, algorithms and relationships:

- Solve one- and two-step problems with whole numbers using addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Compute and estimate using mental mathematics, paper-and-pencil methods, calculators and computers:

- Select and perform computational procedures to solve problems with whole numbers.
- Show evidence that whole number computational results are correct and/or that estimates are reasonable.

Solve problems using comparison of quantities, ratios, proportions and percents:

- Compare the numbers of objects in groups.

### Learning Objectives Grades 3-5

Demonstrate knowledge and use of numbers and their representations in a broad range of theoretical and practical settings:

- Compare and order whole numbers, fractions and decimals using concrete materials, drawings and mathematical symbols.

Investigate, represent and solve problems using number facts, operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) and their properties, algorithms and relationships:

- Solve one- and two-step problems involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals using addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Compute and estimate using mental mathematics, paper-and-pencil methods, calculators and computers:

- Select and perform computational procedures to solve problems with whole numbers, fractions and decimals.
- Show evidence that computational results using whole numbers, fractions and decimals are correct and/or that estimates are reasonable.

Solve problems using comparison of quantities, ratios, proportions and percents:

- Describe the relationship between two sets of data using ratios and appropriate notations (e.g., a/b, a to b, a:b).

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