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Elemementary School | Mathematics | Data Analysis and Probability

The ability to understand and interpret data (e.g., opinion polls, stock prices, tax rates, crime statistics, scientific studies, weather reports) grows more important each day. Students must be able to organize data, make sense of variables and patterns, and judge the logical reasonableness of any claims and interpretations made. Even very young students can count objects and communicate their findings with charts and graphs. Students of all ages can collect, display and interpret data to answer specific questions. They also must construct and analyze arguments that involve data and its interpretation. All students need to understand and apply the role probability plays in data collection and decision making. Data analysis and use are important abilities necessary for all careers.

Learning Objectives Grades K-2

Organize, describe and make predictions from existing data:

  • Organize and display data using pictures, tallies, tables, charts or bar graphs.
  • Answer questions and make predictions based on given data.

Formulate questions, design data collection methods, gather and analyze data and communicate findings:

  • Formulate questions of interest and design surveys or experiments to gather data.
  • Collect, organize and describe data using pictures, tallies, tables, charts or bar graphs.
  • Analyze data, draw conclusions and communicate the results.

Determine, describe and apply the probabilities of events:

  • Describe the concept of probability in relationship to likelihood and chance.
  • Systematically list all possible outcomes of a simple one-stage experiment (e.g., the flip of one coin, the toss of one die, the spin of a spinner).

Learning Objectives Grades 3-5

Organize, describe and make predictions from existing data:

  • Organize and display data using pictures, tallies, tables, charts, bar graphs, line graphs, line plots and stem-and-leaf graphs.
  • Using a data set, determine mean, median, mode and range, with and without the use of technology.
  • Make predictions and decisions based on data and communicate their reasoning.

Formulate questions, design data collection methods, gather and analyze data and communicate findings:

  • Formulate questions of interest and select methods to systematically collect data.
  • Collect, organize and display data using tables, charts, bar graphs, line graphs, circle graphs, line plots and stem-and-leaf graphs.
  • Analyze the data using mean, median, mode and range, as appropriate, with or without the use of technology.
  • Interpret results or make relevant decisions based on the data gathered.

Determine, describe and apply the probabilities of events:

  • Calculate the probability of a simple event.
  • Compare the likelihood of events in terms of certain, more likely, less likely or impossible.
  • Determine the probability of an event involving "and", "or" or "not".

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