## Elementary School | Mathematics | Estimation and Measurement

Measurement provides a way to answer questions about “how many,” “how much” and “how far.” It is an indispensable component of business, manufacturing, art, medicine and many other aspects of daily life. We describe the sizes, capacities and values of many things, from the large distances involved in space travel, to the very small quantities in computer design and microbiology, to the varying values of currencies in international monetary exchange. All people must be able to choose an appropriate level of accuracy for a measurement; to select what measuring instruments to use and to correctly determine the measures of objects, space and time. These activities require people to be able to use standard instruments including rulers, volume and capacity measures, timers and emerging measurement technologies found in the home and workplace.

### Learning Objectives Grades K-2

Measure and compare quantities using appropriate units, instruments and methods:

- Measure length, volume and weight/mass using rulers, scales and other appropriate measuring instruments in the customary and metric systems.
- Measure units of time using appropriate instruments (e.g., calendars, clocks, watches—both analog and digital).
- Identify and describe the relative values and relationships among coins and solve addition and subtraction problems using currency.
- Read temperatures to the nearest degree from Celsius and Fahrenheit thermometers.

Estimate measurements and determine acceptable levels of accuracy:

- Given a problem, describe possible methods for estimating a given measure.
- Compare estimated measures to actual measures taken with appropriate measuring instruments.

Select and use appropriate technology, instruments and formulas to solve problems, interpret results and communicate findings:

- Determine perimeter and area using concrete materials (e.g., geoboards, square tiles, grids, measurement instruments).

### Learning Objectives Grades 3-5

Measure and compare quantities using appropriate units, instruments and methods:

- Calculate, compare and convert length, perimeter, area, weight/mass and volume within the customary and metric systems.
- Solve addition, subtraction, multiplication and division problems using currency.

Estimate measurements and determine acceptable levels of accuracy:

- Determine and communicate possible methods for estimating a given measure, selecting proper units in both customary and metric systems.
- Estimate conversions between measures within the customary and metric systems.

Select and use appropriate technology, instruments and formulas to solve problems, interpret results and communicate findings:

- Describe relationships in a simple scale drawing.
- Construct or draw figures with given perimeters and areas.

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