## Middle School | Mathematics | Computation

Numbers and operations on numbers play fundamental roles in helping us make sense of the world around us. Operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as the ability to find powers and roots, extend the notion of numbers to create tools to model situations and solve problems in our everyday lives. Discussing and solving problems related to budgets, comparing prices on merchandise, understanding the nature of interest charges, measuring fuel consumption and calculating the trajectory for space travel would all be impossible without a sense of numbers and numerical operations. All people must develop this sense of numbers and operations and be able to use it to solve problems using mental computation, paper-and-pencil algorithms, calculators and computers.

### Learning Objectives

Demonstrate knowledge and use of numbers and their representations in a broad range of theoretical and practical settings:

- Represent fractions, decimals, percentages, exponents and scientific notation in equivalent forms.

Investigate, represent and solve problems using number facts, operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) and their properties, algorithms and relationships:

- Solve practical computation problems involving whole numbers, integers and rational numbers.
- Apply primes, factors, divisors, multiples, common factors and common multiples in solving problems.
- Identify and apply properties of real numbers including pi, squares, and square roots.

Compute and estimate using mental mathematics, paper-and-pencil methods, calculators and computers:

- Select computational procedures and solve problems with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percents and proportions.
- Show evidence that computational results using whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percents and proportions are correct and/or that estimates are reasonable.

Solve problems using comparison of quantities, ratios, proportions and percents:

- Apply ratios and proportions to solve practical problems.

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