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Middle School | Mathematics | Geometry

Geometry provides important methods for reasoning and solving problems with points, lines, planes and space. The word “geometry” comes from Greek words meaning “measurement of the Earth.” While we use modern technology and employ a wider variety of mathematical tools today, we still study geometry to understand the shapes and dimensions of our world. The applications of geometry are widespread in construction, engineering, architecture, mapmaking and art. Historically, geometry is a way to develop skill in forming convincing arguments and proofs. This goal of developing a means of argument and validation remains an important part of our reasons for studying geometry today.

Learning Objectives

Demonstrate and apply geometric concepts involving points, lines, planes and space:

  • Draw or construct two- and three- dimensional geometric figures including prisms, pyramids, cylinders and cones.
  • Draw transformation images of figures, with and without the use of technology.
  • Use concepts of symmetry, congruency, similarity, scale, perspective, and angles to describe and analyze two- and three-dimensional shapes found in practical applications (e.g., geodesic domes, A-frame houses, basketball courts, inclined planes, art forms, blueprints).

Identify, describe, classify and compare relationships using points, lines, planes and solids:

  • Identify, describe, classify and compare two- and three- dimensional geometric figures and models according to their properties.

Construct convincing arguments and proofs to solve problems:

  • Construct, develop and communicate logical arguments (informal proofs) about geometric figures and patterns.
  • Develop and solve problems using geometric relationships and models, with and without the use of technology.

Use trigonometric ratios and circular functions to solve problems:

  • Compute distances, lengths and measures of angles using proportions, the Pythagorean theorem and its converse.

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